Knowledge and class teacher
As decisions about adding, splitting, or dividing codes were made, we revisited all previously coded responses to apply the refined codebook.
Each code was a short phrase we used to describe the essence of an idea.
What should teachers know about their students
Teacher noticing emphasizes the importance of attending to student thinking and focuses on real-time reasoning and responding in the classroom. We also grounded this study in a theoretical framework for distinguishing among different types of active learning, the ICAP framework. This category distinguishes itself from the knowledge on strategies that has already been mentioned; the former is concerned with ways to articulate or coordinate learning activities. Reflection involves monitoring student thinking or student learning; comparing these data with intended learning objectives; and making decisions to maintain, initiate, adjust, or terminate a teaching approach McAlpine and Weston, Each criterion is described in more detail later in this section. Additionally, most members of SABER have positions in life science departments and may regularly interact with colleagues about teaching e. The online survey included lesson-analysis questions and questions about teaching practices and relevant professional experiences. Our standard for demonstrating effectiveness was rigorous, but it also has several limitations. Novices had four or fewer years of experience and met neither criteria B nor C. We generated an a priori list of codes when analyzing pilot data collected as we refined the lesson-analysis survey Appendix B in the Supplemental Material. Participant Identification and Recruitment We used three approaches to identify potential participants.
We were especially interested in knowledge important for active learning in large courses, which we define as 50 or more students, because large courses present unique challenges and are common in undergraduate STEM education National Research Council, Didactic knowledge is understood as the mastery of a teaching method or techniques for addressing learning objectives.
Teaching knowledge: category of the ability to explain—gift of teaching This category integrates codes whose meaning recognizes the outstanding ability of teachers in the knowledge of how to teach, i.
All funded projects are publicly available in a searchable list on the NSF website. As can be seen from this narrative, being able to explain topics so well not only facilitates the full comprehension of the subject, but also it stimulates the enthusiasm on behalf of the students, and this has an influence on the future career paths chosen by students.
This code refers to the attention and care given to reach a goal and achieve learning in the performance of the student; it involves a professional trait of focusing attention on the student and on his or her learning needs; it requires listening attentively, to provide help and resources, to explain again topics more than one time if needed, to go over the exercise again with the student, etc.
We generated an a priori list of codes when analyzing pilot data collected as we refined the lesson-analysis survey Appendix B in the Supplemental Material.
We asked whether participants had participated in 40 or more hours of teaching professional development and whether they had led teaching professional development. The good attitudes of memorable teachers will be an encouraging factor for the disposition of students toward learning of their subject. Each code was a short phrase we used to describe the essence of an idea. They may be highly effective at teaching that topic and much less effective at teaching other topics. Additionally, no novices had published discipline-based education research DBER. Additionally, there is wide variability in the learning gains instructors are able to achieve using active learning e. On the other hand, the didactic knowledge category includes a code that has been named narrative teacher [ 33 ], which describes a type of teacher that shares, through the use of pedagogical narratives, his or her life experiences, which then become learning scenarios for their students; in this sense, each narrated scenario is linked and supported by the employment of the imagination in each of the minds of the students, and, hence, imagination and learning take place in a didactic situation [ 24 ]. The number of codes created to fully characterize the data was too large to be meaningfully interpreted. Academic justice and equality of good teachers, in terms of values, are the crown jewels of the professional competencies. This happens even as it was identified that the teacher used traditional but effective teaching strategies. Some codes had been used for quotes that seemed to be about a specific idea but were too vague for us to be sure.
This study addressed two research questions. Section 3 focuses on in-class features and activities and includes questions about what the instructor and students do in class see all questions in Appendix C in the Supplemental Material.
Evidence of Effectiveness Criterion B. Qualitative analyses produced the raw data with which we made quantitative comparisons between expert and novice active-learning instructors.
We also surveyed participants about relevant prior professional experiences.
based on 28 review